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Plant Cell. 2011 Sep;23(9):3129-36. doi: 10.1105/tpc.111.089573. Epub 2011 Sep 13.

Changes in twelve homoeologous genomic regions in soybean following three rounds of polyploidy.

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Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA.


With the advent of high-throughput sequencing, the availability of genomic sequence for comparative genomics is increasing exponentially. Numerous completed plant genome sequences enable characterization of patterns of the retention and evolution of genes within gene families due to multiple polyploidy events, gene loss and fractionation, and differential evolutionary pressures over time and across different gene families. In this report, we trace the changes that have occurred in 12 surviving homoeologous genomic regions from three rounds of polyploidy that contributed to the current Glycine max genome: a genome triplication before the origin of the rosids (~130 to 240 million years ago), a genome duplication early in the legumes (~58 million years ago), and a duplication in the Glycine lineage (~13 million years ago). Patterns of gene retention following the genome triplication event generally support predictions of the Gene Balance Hypothesis. Finally, we find that genes in networks with a high level of connectivity are more strongly conserved than those with low connectivity and that the enrichment of these highly connected genes in the 12 highly conserved homoeologous segments may in part explain their retention over more than 100 million years and repeated polyploidy events.

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