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Eur J Cell Biol. 2012 Jun-Jul;91(6-7):506-14. doi: 10.1016/j.ejcb.2011.07.005. Epub 2011 Sep 13.

MAD1 and its life as a MYC antagonist: an update.

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Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical School, RWTH Aachen University, 52057 Aachen, Germany.


The MYC/MAX/MAD network is of central importance for controlling cell physiology. The network is compiled of transcriptional regulators that form different heterodimers, which can either activate or repress the expression of target genes. Thus these proteins function as a molecular switch to control gene expression. MAD1, a member of this network, acts as a transcriptional repressor. It interacts with MAX to form the OFF position of the switch, antagonizing MYC/MAX complexes that define the ON position. MAD1 regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis through a number of target genes. In addition recent evidence indicates that the expression and activity of MAD1 are regulated at multiple levels. Here the recent developments are summarized, in comparison to MYC, of our understanding how the expression of the MAD1 gene and protein are controlled and what the functional consequences and downstream effectors of MAD1 are, which relay its activity as a transcriptional regulator.

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