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Adv Exp Med Biol. 2011;722:196-208. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-0332-6_12.

Promoter-associated long noncoding RNAs repress transcription through a RNA binding protein TLS.

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Saitama Medical University, Yamane, Hidaka-shi, Saitama-Ken, Japan.


The majority of the human genome is found to be transcribed and generates mostly noncoding (nc) RNAs that do not possess protein information. MicroRNAs are one of the well-identified small ncRNAs, but occupy merely a fraction of ncRNAs. Long (large) ncRNAs are emerging as a novel class of ncRNAs, but knowledge of these ncRNAs is far less accumulated. Long ncRNAs are tentatively classified as an ncRNA species containing more than 200 nucleotides. Recently, a long promoter-associated ncRNA (pncRNA) has been identified to be transcribed from the cyclin D1 promoter upon induction by genotoxic factors like ionizing-irradiation. The cyclin D1 pncRNA is specifically bound with an RNA-binding protein TLS (Translocated in liposarcoma) and exerts transcriptional repression through histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitory activity. Analysis of TLS and the pncRNAs could provide a model for elucidating their roles inregulation of mammalian transcriptional programs. The pncRNA binding to TLS turns out to be an essential event for the HAT inhibitory activity. A key consensus sequence of the pncRNA is composed of GGUG, while not every RNA sequence bearing GGUG is targeted by TLS, suggesting that a secondary structure of the GGUG-bearing RNAs is also involved in recognition by TLS. Taken together, TLS is a unique mediator between signals of the long ncRNAs and transcription, suggesting that RNA networking functions in living cells.(1-3).

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