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Ecohealth. 2011 Sep;8(3):376-80. doi: 10.1007/s10393-011-0706-x. Epub 2011 Sep 13.

Human vs. animal outbreaks of the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A epidemic.

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Department of Biomedical Informatics, Arizona State University, Samuel C. Johnson Research Bldg, 13212 East Shea Boulevard, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA.


The majority of emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in origin, including recently emerging influenza viruses such as the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A epidemic. The epidemic that year affected both human and animal populations as it spread globally. In fact, before the end of 2009, 14 different countries reported H1N1 infected swine. In order to better understand the zoonotic nature of the epidemic and the relationship between human and animal disease surveillance data streams, we compared 2009 reports of H1N1 infection to define the temporal relationship between reported cases in animals and humans. Generally, human cases preceded animal cases at a country-level, supporting the potential of H1N1 infection to be a "reverse zoonosis", and the value of integrating human and animal disease report data.

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