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Nat Rev Cardiol. 2011 Sep 13;9(1):53-62. doi: 10.1038/nrcardio.2011.132.

Restenosis after PCI. Part 1: pathophysiology and risk factors.

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Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.


Restenosis is a complex disease for which the pathophysiological mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated, but are thought to include inflammation, proliferation, and matrix remodeling. Over the years, many predictive clinical, biological, (epi)genetic, lesion-related, and procedural risk factors for restenosis have been identified. These factors are not only useful in risk stratification of patients, they also contribute to our understanding of this condition. Furthermore, these factors provide evidence on which to base treatment tailored to the individual and aid in the development of novel therapeutic modalities. In this Review, we will evaluate the available evidence on the pathophysiological mechanisms of restenosis and provide an overview of the various risk factors, together with the possible clinical application of this knowledge.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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