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Brain. 2011 Sep;134(Pt 9):2703-21. doi: 10.1093/brain/awr200.

Impaired neurosteroid synthesis in multiple sclerosis.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine (Neurology), 6-11 Heritage Medical Research Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2S2, Canada.

Abstract

High-throughput technologies have led to advances in the recognition of disease pathways and their underlying mechanisms. To investigate the impact of micro-RNAs on the disease process in multiple sclerosis, a prototypic inflammatory neurological disorder, we examined cerebral white matter from patients with or without the disease by micro-RNA profiling, together with confirmatory reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, immunoblotting and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These observations were verified using the in vivo multiple sclerosis model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Brains of patients with or without multiple sclerosis demonstrated differential expression of multiple micro-RNAs, but expression of three neurosteroid synthesis enzyme-specific micro-RNAs (miR-338, miR-155 and miR-491) showed a bias towards induction in patients with multiple sclerosis (P < 0.05). Analysis of the neurosteroidogenic pathways targeted by micro-RNAs revealed suppression of enzyme transcript and protein levels in the white matter of patients with multiple sclerosis (P < 0.05). This was confirmed by firefly/Renilla luciferase micro-RNA target knockdown experiments (P < 0.05) and detection of specific micro-RNAs by in situ hybridization in the brains of patients with or without multiple sclerosis. Levels of important neurosteroids, including allopregnanolone, were suppressed in the white matter of patients with multiple sclerosis (P < 0.05). Induction of the murine micro-RNAs, miR-338 and miR-155, accompanied by diminished expression of neurosteroidogenic enzymes and allopregnanolone, was also observed in the brains of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (P < 0.05). Allopregnanolone treatment of the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model limited the associated neuropathology, including neuroinflammation, myelin and axonal injury and reduced neurobehavioral deficits (P < 0.05). These multi-platform studies point to impaired neurosteroidogenesis in both multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The findings also indicate that allopregnanolone and perhaps other neurosteroid-like compounds might represent potential biomarkers or therapies for multiple sclerosis.

PMID:
21908875
PMCID:
PMC4141444
DOI:
10.1093/brain/awr200
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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