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Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2012 Jan-Feb;63(1):1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.otorri.2011.07.001. Epub 2011 Sep 9.

Development and validation of a method of cilia motility analysis for the early diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia.

[Article in English, Spanish]

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Sección de Rinología, Servicio de Otorrinolaringología, Hospital General Universitario, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, España.



Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a clinically uniform entity, but cilia motility and structure can vary between patients, making the diagnostic difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing PCD of a system of high-resolution digital high-speed video analysis with proprietary software that we developed for analysis of ciliary motility (Desinsoft-Bio 200). The secondary aim was to correlate nasal ciliary activity with clinical and structural abnormalities in PCD.


We analysed nasal mucociliary transport, cilia ultrastructure, nasal ciliary beat frequency and beat pattern studied by high-resolution digital high-speed video in 25 cases of PCD (11 Kartagener syndrome), 27 secondary ciliary dyskinesia and 34 healthy volunteers.


Nasal mucociliary transport was defective in both primary and secondary ciliary dyskinesia. Ciliary immotility was observed only in 6 patients with Kartagener syndrome and correlated with the absence of dynein. We observed a correlation between partial dynein deficiencies and ciliary dyskinesia. Cilia activity and structure was normal in secondary ciliary dyskinesia.


Nasal mucociliary transport showed high sensitivity for PCD diagnosis with a low specificity. High-resolution digital high-speed video has a high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing PCD. This system of video analysis is more useful than ultrastructural study and mucociliary transport for PCD screening. Dynein absence is correlated with cilia immotility and is more common in patients with Kartagener syndrome.

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