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Int J Biol Macromol. 2011 Dec 1;49(5):1051-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2011.08.032. Epub 2011 Sep 2.

In vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Enteromorpha prolifera.

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Department of Biomedical Science, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, 712-702, Korea.


Water-soluble sulfated polysaccharides extracted from Enteromorpha prolifera and fractionated using ion-exchange chromatography (crude, F(1), F(2) and F(3) fractions) were investigated to determine their in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities. The sulfated polysaccharides, especially the F(1) and F(2) fractions, stimulated a macrophage cell line, Raw 264.7, inducing considerable nitric oxide (NO) and various cytokine production via up-regulated mRNA expression. The in vivo experiment results show that the sulfated polysaccharides (the crude and F(2) fractions) significantly increased Con A-induced splenocyte proliferation, revealing their potential comitogenic activity. In addition, IFN-γ and IL-2 secretions were considerably increased by the F(2) fraction without altering the release of IL-4 and IL-5. This implies that the F(2) fraction can activate T cells by up-regulating Th-1 response and that Th-1 cells might be the main target cells of the F(2) fraction. These in vitro and in vivo results suggest that the sulfated polysaccharides are strong immunostimulators.

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