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Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2011;2011:482973. doi: 10.1155/2011/482973. Epub 2011 Aug 1.

A review of the receptor-binding properties of p-synephrine as related to its pharmacological effects.

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1
School of Pharmacy and Health Professions, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68178, USA. sstohs@yahoo.com

Abstract

Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine are used widely in weight loss/weight management and sports performance products. Because of structural similarities, the pharmacological effects of p-synephrine are widely assumed to be similar to those of ephedrine, m-synephrine (phenylephrine), and endogenous amine neurotransmitters as norepinephrine and epinephrine. However, small structural changes result in the receptor binding characteristics of these amines that are markedly different, providing a plausible explanation for the paucity of adverse effects associated with the wide-spread consumption of p-synephrine in the form of dietary supplements as well as in various Citrus foods and juices. This paper summarizes the adrenoreceptor binding characteristics of p-synephrine relative to m-synephrine, norepinephrine, and other amines as related to the observed pharmacological effects.

PMID:
21904645
PMCID:
PMC3166186
DOI:
10.1155/2011/482973
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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