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J Comput Biol. 2011 Sep;18(9):1167-84. doi: 10.1089/cmb.2011.0118.

Double cut and join with insertions and deletions.

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Technische Fakult├Ąt, Universit├Ąt Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany.


Many approaches to compute the genomic distance are still limited to genomes with the same content, without duplicated markers. However, differences in the gene content are frequently observed and can reflect important evolutionary aspects. While duplicated markers can hardly be handled by exact models, when duplicated markers are not allowed, a few polynomial time algorithms that include genome rearrangements, insertions and deletions were already proposed. In an attempt to improve these results, in the present work we give the first linear time algorithm to compute the distance between two multichromosomal genomes with unequal content, but without duplicated markers, considering insertions, deletions and double cut and join (DCJ) operations. We derive from this approach algorithms to sort one genome into another one also using DCJ operations, insertions and deletions. The optimal sorting scenarios can have different compositions and we compare two types of sorting scenarios: one that maximizes and one that minimizes the number of DCJ operations with respect to the number of insertions and deletions. We also show that, although the triangle inequality can be disrupted in the proposed genomic distance, it is possible to correct this problem adopting a surcharge on the number of non-common markers. We use our method to analyze six species of Rickettsia, a group of obligate intracellular parasites, and identify preliminary evidence of clusters of deletions.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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