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J Clin Periodontol. 1990 Apr;17(4):233-42.

Improved metabolic control, clinical periodontal status and subgingival microbiology in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. A prospective study.

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Department of General Pathology and Internal Medicine, Academic Center for Dentistry, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


The effect of improved metabolic control on the clinical periodontal condition and the subgingival microflora of diseased and healthy periodontal pockets in 6 ambulatory insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients was prospectively studied. Duplicate measurements with a time-interval of 3 days were made every 4 moths for assessment of the metabolic status, the clinical periodontal condition and the subgingival microflora. During the study, patients maintained personal oral hygiene measures as they usually did before the study. Neither supplementary dental prophylaxis nor oral hygiene measures were applied during the investigation. Long-term metabolic control (HbAlc) improved significantly with intensive conventional insulin treatment. Gingival redness decreased significantly whereas gingival swelling showed a not significant trend to decrease. It is suggested that microvascular changes associated with improved metabolic control in diabetes mellitus may mediate the observed change in gingival redness. No effect could be demonstrated for probing pocket depth, probing attachment level, bleeding on probing and the plaque index. Statistical analysis of the effect of improved metabolic control on the subgingival microflora revealed that only the % of streptococci increased significantly in diseased periodontal pockets. In general, no significant changes were found in either healthy or diseased pockets with regard to the bacterial flora associated with periodontal disease. The results of the present study indicate that improved metabolic control in IDDM patients may have no potential impetus for an improved clinical periodontal condition nor on the subgingival bacterial flora. It is concluded that the periodontal condition in IDDM patients may only ameliorate when local oral hygiene measures are applied.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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