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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Jun;70(6):1594-602.

Effects of weight loss and reduced hyperglycemia on the kinetics of insulin secretion in obese non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

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Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego 92037.


Impairment in pancreatic production of insulin, a cardinal feature of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), was quantified and the kinetics of insulin secretion characterized in six obese individuals with NIDDM before and after weight loss (18.0 +/- 3.0 kg, mean +/- SEM) using a validated mathematical model that employs C-peptide as a marker of the in vivo rate of insulin secretion. The metabolic clearance of C-peptide, assessed by decay analysis after bolus injection of biosynthetic human C-peptide, was not changed by weight loss (0.143 +/- 0.009 L/min.m2 vs. 0.137 +/- 0.010 L/min.m2). Kinetic parameters from each individual's decay curve before and after weight loss were used to derive accurate rates of secretion during the basal (postabsorptive) state, an oral glucose tolerance test and two hyperglycemic clamps. Basal rates of insulin secretion declined 20 +/- 5 pmol/min.m2 (96 +/- 15 to 76 +/- 15 pmol/min.m2, P less than 0.05) concomitant with decreases of 6.9 +/- 0.9 mmol/L in fasting serum glucose (13.7 +/- 1.0 to 6.8 +/- 0.7 mmol/L, P less than 0.05), 60 +/- 14 pmol/L in serum insulin (134 +/- 30 to 74 +/- 15 pmol/L, P less than 0.05), and 0.15 +/- 0.03 pmol/ml in plasma C-peptide (0.67 +/- 0.11 to 0.52 +/- 0.08 pmol/ml, P less than 0.05) concentrations. As expected, weight loss resulted in improved glucose tolerance as measured by the glycemic profiles during the oral glucose tolerance test (P less than 0.05 analysis of variance). The insulin secretory response before weight loss showed a markedly reduced ability to respond appropriately to an increase in the ambient serum glucose. After weight loss, the pancreatic response was more dynamic (P less than 0.05, analysis of variance) and parralleled the moment-to-moment changes in glycemia. Insulin production above basal doubled (11.2 +/- 3.2 to 24.5 +/- 5.8 nmol/6h.m2, P less than 0.05) and peak rates of insulin secretion above basal tripled (55 +/- 16 to 157 +/- 32 pmol/min/m2, P less than 0.05). To assess the beta-cell response to glucose per se and the changes associated with weight reduction, two hyperglycemic clamps were performed at steady state glucose levels in the range characteristic of individuals with severe NIDDM. At a fixed glycemia of 20 mmol/L, average rates of insulin secretion increased almost 2-fold with treatment (161 +/- 41 to 277 +/- 60 pmol/min.m2, P less than 0.05). At an increment of 6 mmol/L glucose above prevailing fasting glucose levels, the average rate of insulin secretion increased 53% (120 +/- 21 to 183 +/- 39 pmol/min.m2, P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

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