Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Immunogenetics. 2012 Feb;64(2):97-109. doi: 10.1007/s00251-011-0569-x. Epub 2011 Sep 7.

KIR genotypic diversity can track ancestries in heterogeneous populations: a potential confounder for disease association studies.

Author information

  • 1Kalmanovitz Liver Immunology Laboratory, California Pacific Medical Center & Research Institute, 2340 Clay Street, 3rd floor, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA.


Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are encoded by highly polymorphic genes that regulate the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and other lymphocyte subsets and likely play key roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Association studies increasingly implicate KIR in disease predisposition and outcome but could be confounded by unknown KIR genetic structure in heterogeneous populations. To examine this, we characterized the diversity of 16 KIR genes in 712 Northern Californians (NC) stratified by self-assigned ethnicities and compared the profiles of KIR polymorphism with other US and global populations using a reference database. Sixty-eight distinct KIR genotypes were characterized: 58 in 457 Caucasians (NCC), 17 in 47 African Americans (NCAA), 21 in 80 Asians (NCA), 20 in 74 Hispanics (NCH), and 18 in 54 "other" ethnicities (NCO). KIR genotype patterns and frequencies in the 4 defined ethnicities were compared with each other and with 34 global populations by phylogenetic analysis. Although there were no population-specific genotypes, the KIR genotype frequency patterns faithfully traced the ancestry of NCC, NCAA, and NCA but not of NCH whose ancestries are known to be more heterogeneous. KIR genotype frequencies can therefore track ethnic ancestries in modern urban populations. Our data emphasize the importance of selecting ethnically matched controls in KIR-based studies to avert spurious associations.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center