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Arch Virol. 2011 Nov;156(11):2007-13. doi: 10.1007/s00705-011-1098-5. Epub 2011 Sep 7.

Molecular characterization and complete genome analysis of human enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 from children with hand, foot and mouth disease in Thailand during 2008-2011.

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Department of Pediatrics, Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.


Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has mostly been caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). CA 16 was the most common cause of HFMD in 2010. EV71 had a high prevalence in 2008-2009 and has been identified with a higher frequency since 2011. Nearly complete genome sequences of three EV71 strains (2008-2009 strains) and two CA16 strains (2010 strains) obtained from outbreaks in Thailand in 2008 to 2010 were characterized. Based on a phylogenetic tree of the complete VP1 region, three EV71 strains grouped into the B5, C1 and C4 genotypes, and two CA16 strains grouped into the C genotype. Based on sequence analysis, nucleotide changes were found to cluster in the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR). Amino acid differences identified in all strains were located in the non-structural protein. These data also provide the molecular epidemiology of EV71 and CA16 outbreaks in Thailand.

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