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Mycopathologia. 2012 Jun;173(5-6):407-18. doi: 10.1007/s11046-011-9468-9. Epub 2011 Sep 6.

Unravelling secretion in Cryptococcus neoformans: more than one way to skin a cat.

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Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


Secretion pathways in fungi are essential for the maintenance of cell wall architecture and for the export of a number of virulence factors. In the fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, much evidence supports the existence of more than one route taken by secreted molecules to reach the cell periphery and extracellular space, and a significant degree of crosstalk between conventional and non-conventional secretion routes. The need for such complexity may be due to differences in the nature of the exported cargo, the spatial and temporal requirements for constitutive and non-constitutive protein secretion, and/or as a means of compensating for the extra burden on the secretion machinery imposed by the elaboration of the polysaccharide capsule. This review focuses on the role of specific components of the C. neoformans secretion machinery in protein and/or polysaccharide export, including Sec4, Sec6, Sec14, Golgi reassembly and stacking protein and extracellular exosome-like vesicles. We also address what is known about traffic of the lipid, glucosylceramide, a target of therapeutic antibodies and an important regulator of C. neoformans pathogenicity, and the role of signalling pathways in the regulation of secretion.

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