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J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2011 Sep;13(9):644-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-7176.2011.00511.x. Epub 2011 Aug 9.

Aldosterone blockers (mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism) and potassium-sparing diuretics.

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1
Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA. murraye@gate.net

Abstract

KEY POINTS AND PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS:

•  Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists (aldosterone blockers) provide effective antihypertensive treatment, especially in low-renin and salt-sensitive forms of hypertension, including resistant hypertension. •  Newer, more selective MR antagonists (eg, eplerenone) have fewer of the progestational and antiandrogenic effects than spironolactone, enhancing tolerability and potentially improving adherence to therapy. •  MR antagonists provide an additional benefit in the treatment of heart failure when combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, digoxin, and loop diuretics. •  Other potassium-sparing diuretics (amiloride or triamterene) are generally prescribed for essential hypertension as a fixed-dose combination with hydrochlorothiazide. •  The dose range for spironolactone with resistant hypertension is between 25 mg/d and 50 mg/d, and eplerenone is an appropriate alternative if spironolactone is not tolerated because of sexual side effects. •  In general, the combined use of spironolactone and adequate doses of a thiazide diuretic or a thiazide-like agent such as chlorthalidone for the treatment of resistant hypertension maximizes efficacy and reduces the risk of spironolactone-induced hyperkalemia.

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