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Dev Psychol. 2011 Nov;47(6):1579-88. doi: 10.1037/a0025292. Epub 2011 Sep 5.

Families created through surrogacy: mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment at age 7.

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Centre for Family Research, Faculty of Politics, Psychology, Sociology, and International Studies, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.


Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation, and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity, or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years.

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