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Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2011 Sep;40(3):461-71, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2011.06.001.

The pivotal role of insulin-like growth factor I in normal mammary development.

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1
Department of Medicine (Endocrinology), New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. David.Kleinberg@nyumc.org

Abstract

Mammary development begins in puberty in response to an estrogen (E(2)) surge. E(2) does not act alone. It relies on pituitary growth hormone (GH) to induce insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) production in the mammary stromal compartment. In turn, IGF-I permits E(2) (and progesterone) action. During puberty, E(2) and IGF-I synergize for ductal morphogenesis. During pregnancy, progesterone joins IGF-I and E(2) to stimulate secretory differentiation necessary to produce milk. Prolactin stimulates milk production, while transforming growth factor-β inhibits proliferation. The orchestrated action of hormones, growth factors, and receptors necessary for mammary development and function are also critical in breast cancer.

PMID:
21889714
DOI:
10.1016/j.ecl.2011.06.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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