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Virol J. 2011 Sep 4;8:419. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-8-419.

An overview on ELISA techniques for FMD.

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State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot and Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, China.



FMD is one of the major causes of economic loss of cloven-hoofed animals in the world today. The assessment of dominant genotype/lineage and prevalent trends and confirmation the presence of infection or vaccination not only provides scientific basis and first-hand information for appropriate control measure but also for disease eradication and regaining FMD free status following an outbreak. Although different biological and serological approaches are still applied to study this disease, ELISA test based on the distinct format, antigen type and specific antibody reinforce its predominance in different research areas of FMD, and this may replace the traditional methods in the near future. This review gives comprehensive insight on ELISA currently available for typing, antigenic analysis, vaccination status differentiation and surveillance vaccine purity and content at all stages of manufacture in FMDV. Besides, some viewpoint about the recent advances and trends of ELISA reagent for FMD are described here.


More than 100 studies regarding ELISA method available for FMD diagnosis, antigenic analysis and monitor were thoroughly reviewed. We investigated previous sagacious results of these tests on their sensitivity, specificity.


We found that in all ELISA formats for FMD, antibody-trapping and competitive ELISAs have high specificity and RT-PCR (oligoprobing) ELISA has extra sensitivity. A panel of monoclonal antibodies to different sites or monoclonal antibody in combination of antiserum is the most suitable combination of antibodies in ELISA for FMD. Even though from its beginning, 3ABC is proven to be best performance in many studies, no single NSP can differentiate infected from vaccinated animals with complete confidence. Meanwhile, recombinant antigens and peptide derived from FMDV NPs, and NSPs have been developed for use as an alternative to the inactivated virus antigen for security.


There is a need of target protein, which accurately determines the susceptible animal status based on the simple, fast and reliable routine laboratory test. A further alternative based on virus-like particle (VLP, also called empty capsids) in combination of high throughput antibody technique (Phage antibody library/antibody microarray) may be the powerful ELISA diagnostic reagents in future.

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