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Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 Oct;6(10):2462-9. doi: 10.2215/CJN.00700111. Epub 2011 Sep 1.

Cigarette smoking and the association with glomerular hyperfiltration and proteinuria in healthy middle-aged men.

Author information

1
Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3, Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585, Japan.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Glomerular hyperfiltration and albuminuria accompanied by early-stage diabetic kidney disease predict future renal failure. Cigarette smoking has reported to be associated with elevated GFR in cross-sectional studies and with renal deterioration in longitudinal studies. The degree of glomerular hyperfiltration and proteinuria associated with smoking, which presumably is a phenomenon of early renal damage, has not been investigated in a satisfying manner so far.

DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:

This study included 10,118 Japanese men aged 40 to 55 years without proteinuria or renal dysfunction at entry. Estimated GFR was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation for Japanese. Glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as estimated GFR ≥117.0 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), which was the upper 2.5th percentile value of estimated GFR in the total population. Proteinuria was detected using standard dipstick.

RESULTS:

During the 6-year observation period, there were 449 incident cases of glomerular hyperfiltration and 1653 cases of proteinuria. Current smokers had a 1.32-time higher risk for the development of glomerular hyperfiltration and a 1.51-time higher risk for proteinuria than nonsmokers after adjustment for baseline age, body mass index, systolic and diastolic BP, antihypertensive medication, diabetes, alcohol consumption, regular leisure-time physical activity, and estimated GFR. Both daily and cumulative cigarette consumption were associated with an increased risk for glomerular hyperfiltration and proteinuria in a dose-response manner.

CONCLUSIONS:

In middle-aged Japanese men, smoking was associated with an increased risk of glomerular hyperfiltration and dipstick proteinuria. Of importance, past smokers did not exhibit any increased risk for these conditions.

PMID:
21885794
PMCID:
PMC3359554
DOI:
10.2215/CJN.00700111
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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