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J Clin Pharmacol. 2012 Aug;52(8):1200-14. doi: 10.1177/0091270011410570. Epub 2011 Sep 1.

Cocktail approach for in vivo phenotyping of 5 major CYP450 isoenzymes: development of an effective sampling, extraction, and analytical procedure and pilot study with comparative genotyping.

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Institute of Forensic Medicine, University Medical Center Freiburg, Albertstraße 9, 79104 Freiburg, Germany.


In this study, the authors developed a phenotyping method for CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 using a cocktail of 100 mg caffeine, 125 mg tolbutamide, 20 mg omeprazole, 30 mg dextromethorphan, and 2 mg midazolam. A simple sampling scheme was established collecting 3 blood samples at 0, 4, and 24 hours followed by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis. After addition of 8 deuterated internal standards and extraction, the analytes were separated using gradient elution with ammonium acetate and methanol. Data acquisition was performed on a triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer in multiple-reaction monitoring mode with positive electrospray ionization. The assay was validated according to international guidelines: limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.25 and 1.0 ng/mL for all analytes, except for paraxanthine and caffeine (20 ng/mL). Extraction efficiencies ranged between 77% and 103% and matrix effects between 23% and 95%; precision and accuracy data fulfilled accepted criteria. Calibration curves from LOQ to 1000 ng/mL were established for undiluted and 1:10 diluted plasma (r > 0.998). The method was tested in a pilot study with 14 volunteers. Additional genotyping of the probands generally demonstrated good accordance with the measured phenotyping indices but also disclosed certain contradictory results.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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