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Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 Sep 15;19(18):5321-33. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2011.08.008. Epub 2011 Aug 11.

Chemical modifications of resveratrol for improved protein kinase C alpha activity.

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Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, United States.


Resveratrol (1) is a naturally occurring phytoalexin that affects a variety of human disease models, including cardio- and neuroprotection, immune regulation, and cancer chemoprevention. One of the possible mechanisms by which resveratrol affects these disease states is by affecting the cellular signaling network involving protein kinase C alpha (PKCα). PKCα is a member of the family of serine/threonine kinases, whose activity is inhibited by resveratrol. To study the structure-activity relationship, several monoalkoxy, dialkoxy and hydroxy analogs of resveratrol have been synthesized, tested for their cytotoxic effects on HEK293 cells, measured their effects on the membrane translocation properties of PKCα in the presence and absence of the PKC activator TPA, and studied their binding with the activator binding domain of PKCα. The analogs showed less cytotoxic effects on HEK293 cells and caused higher membrane translocation (activation) than that of resveratrol. Among all the analogs, 3, 16 and 25 showed significantly higher activation than resveratrol. Resveratrol analogs, however, inhibited phorbol ester-induced membrane translocation, and the inhibition was less than that of resveratrol. Binding studies using steady state fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that resveratrol and the analogs bind to the second cysteine-rich domain of PKCα. The molecular docking studies indicated that resveratrol and the analogs interact with the protein by forming hydrogen bonds through its hydroxyl groups. These results signify that molecules developed on a resveratrol scaffold can attenuate PKCα activity and this strategy can be used to regulate various disease states involving PKCα.

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