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Lab Chip. 2011 Oct 21;11(20):3508-15. doi: 10.1039/c1lc20523d. Epub 2011 Aug 30.

A microfluidic in situ analyzer for ATP quantification in ocean environments.

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Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.


We have developed and tested a functionally integrated in situ analyzer, the IISA-ATP system, for microbial activity assays based on a quantitative determination of the total (particulate and dissolved) ATP in ocean environments. The IISA-ATP utilizes a PDMS-glass hybrid microfluidic device as its core functional element, which can perform cell lysis and total ATP quantification by a luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay in situ. Transparent heaters and a temperature sensor fabricated on a glass substrate provide temperature control. As a result of the evaluation using the microfluidic device with ATP standard solutions, the bioluminescence intensity was linearly correlated with 2 × 10(-12) to 2 × 10(-8) M of ATP. A detection limit of 1.1 × 10(-11) M was determined using the completed IISA-ATP system, which includes a miniature pumping module and a control module. As a result of the evaluation using the environmental seawater sample collected from Tokyo Bay, Japan, 2.7 × 10(-10) M of total ATP was successfully determined in the laboratory by the IISA-ATP. The system was operated at a shallow submarine hot spring area in Okinawa, Japan for an in situ trial. The result shows the system was successfully operated in situ and the total ATP was determined to be 3.4 × 10(-10) M.

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