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Vnitr Lek. 2011 Jul-Aug;57(7-8):635-9.

[Peritoneal dialysis and its modification in the treatment of chronic renal failure].

[Article in Czech]

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  • 1Klinika 1. Lékafské fakulty UK a VFN Praha.


Three methods can be used to treat chronic renal failure - haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation (from a living donor or transplantation of a cadaver kidney). In 2009, 5,763 patients were treated with haemodialysis in the Czech Republic, while peritoneal dialysis was used in just 8% (458) of patients. This low number of peritoneal dialyses may be due to the still high number of chronic renal failure patients who come to dialysis centres "offthe street". Following acute initiation of haemodialysis, these patients are usually retained on haemodialysis. Poor awareness of peritoneal dialysis among patients as well as health care professionals is another reason for the low number of peritoneal dialysis patients. Peritoneal dialysis is suitable for home treatment. Peritoneum serves as the dialysis membrane, peritoneal cavity is filled with dialysis solution and the metabolism waste products and water are excreted into this solution. A base to correct metabolic acidosis then passes from dialysis solution into the body. Permanent catheter is inserted into the abdominal cavity to enable infusion of the dialysis solution. The dialysis is continual and this ensures stability of the inner environment and thus most closely resembles own kidney function. The advantages of peritoneal dialysis include longer preservation of residual renal function, inner environment stability and no need for venous access. Peritoneal dialysis is associated with a lower risk of infections. Peritoneal dialysis is contraindicated in patients after an extensive intraabdominal surgery and in patients with a stoma. Peritoneal damage is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis; the risk increases with the treatment duration and thus peritoneal dialysis is not a long-term treatment choice. With the traditional CAPD (continual ambulatory peritoneal dialysis), the patient performs an exchange ofdialysis solution him/herself4 to 5 times a day. With APD (automated peritoneal dialysis) a machine performs dialysis solution exchanges, dialysis is performed at night and the patient may engage in other activities during a day. From the perspective of log-term survival of patients with chronic renal failure, peritoneal dialysis appears to be the method of choice. The patient is first treated with peritoneal dialysis and subsequently receives a transplant. Should the renal allograft be rejected, the patient returns to the dialysis programme, either peritoneal or haemodialysis. Patients should be provided with true and objective information about their disease and be informed about all treatment options for chronic renal failure. The choice of method has to be tailored to the overall health status of the patient as well as his/her lifestyle.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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