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Enzyme Res. 2011;2011:537821. doi: 10.4061/2011/537821. Epub 2011 Aug 23.

Protein kinase C and toll-like receptor signaling.

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Center for Cardiovascular Sciences, Albany Medical College, 47 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA.


Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of kinases that are implicated in a plethora of diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. PKC isoforms can have different, and sometimes opposing, effects in these disease states. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern recognition receptors that bind pathogens and stimulate the secretion of cytokines. It has long been known that PKC inhibitors reduce LPS-stimulated cytokine secretion by macrophages, linking PKC activation to TLR signaling. Recent studies have shown that PKC-α, -δ, -ε, and -ζ are directly involved in multiple steps in TLR pathways. They associate with the TLR or proximal components of the receptor complex. These isoforms are also involved in the downstream activation of MAPK, RhoA, TAK1, and NF-κB. Thus, PKC activation is intimately involved in TLR signaling and the innate immune response.

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