Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Nephrol. 2011;34(4):347-55. doi: 10.1159/000331064. Epub 2011 Aug 26.

Advanced glycation urinary protein-bound biomarkers and severity of diabetic nephropathy in man.

Author information

Glycation and Diabetes Complications, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, St Kilda Rd. Central, Melbourne, VIC 8008, Australia.



The formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is accelerated in patients with diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to ascertain if the urinary excretion of proteins modified by advanced glycation can be used as biomarkers for albuminuria in individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.


Community-based patients with type 1 (n = 68) or type 2 diabetes (n = 216) attending a diabetes clinic of a tertiary referral hospital were classified as having normoalbuminuria (Normo, albumin excretion rate (AER) <20 μg/min), microalbuminuria (Micro, AER 20-200 μg/min) or macroalbuminuria (Macro, AER ≥200 μg/min). Serum and urine AGE-modified proteins were measured.


In patients with both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, there was a clear association between the degree of albuminuria and urinary AGE-modified proteins (p < 0.0001). Exclusive to patients with type 1 diabetes, urinary excretion of the AGE carboxymethyllysine correlated with AER, whereas patients with type 2 diabetes and macroalbuminuria had an increase in urinary methylglyoxal, an AGE intermediate. These changes were independent of isotopic glomerular filtration rate levels. Serum concentrations of AGEs or soluble receptor for AGEs were not consistently associated with albuminuria in either type 1 or type 2 diabetes.


Urinary excretion of proteins modified by AGEs may be useful biomarkers of albuminuria in individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, warranting prospective investigation in larger diabetic cohorts.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for S. Karger AG, Basel, Switzerland Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center