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J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2011 Oct;29(2):391-401.

Gene re-annotation in genome of the extremophile Pyrobaculum aerophilum by using bioinformatics methods.

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Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, China.


In this paper, we re-annotated the genome of Pyrobaculum aerophilum str. IM2, particularly for hypothetical ORFs. The annotation process includes three parts. Firstly and most importantly, 23 new genes, which were missed in the original annotation, are found by combining similarity search and the ab initio gene finding approaches. Among these new genes, five have significant similarities with function-known genes and the rest have significant similarities with hypothetical ORFs contained in other genomes. Secondly, the coding potentials of the 1645 hypothetical ORFs are re-predicted by using 33 Z curve variables combined with Fisher linear discrimination method. With the accuracy being 99.68%, 25 originally annotated hypothetical ORFs are recognized as non-coding by our method. Thirdly, 80 hypothetical ORFs are assigned with potential functions by using similarity search with BLAST program. Re-annotation of the genome will benefit related researches on this hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon. Also, the re-annotation procedure could be taken as a reference for other archaeal genomes. Details of the revised annotation are freely available at

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