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Bone Marrow Transplant. 2012 Sep;47(9):1154-63. doi: 10.1038/bmt.2011.170. Epub 2011 Aug 29.

Novel agents and approaches for stem cell mobilization in normal donors and patients.

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Department of Hematology and Stem Cell Transplantation, School of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.


In spite of the safety and efficiency of the classical mobilization protocols, recombinant human G-CSF±chemotherapy, there is still a considerable amount of mobilization failures (10-30%), which warrant novel agents and approaches both in an autologous and an allogeneic transplant setting. Attempts to improve CD34+ yields by using several cytokines and growth factors as adjuncts to G-CSF could not change the standard approaches during the last decade, either because of inefficiency or the adverse events encountered with these agents. As a long-acting G-CSF analog, pegfilgrastim has the advantages of an earlier start of apheresis, reduction in the number of apheresis procedures as well as a reduced number of injections as compared with unconjugated G-CSF. However, dosing and cost-effectiveness especially in cytokine-only mobilizations require further investigation. As interactions between hematopoietic stem cells and the BM microenvironment are better understood, new molecules targeting these interactions are emerging. Plerixafor, which started its journey as an anti-HIV drug, recently ended up being a popular stem cell mobilizer with the ability of rapid mobilization and gained approval as an adjunct to G-CSF for poor mobilizers. At present, it is challenging to search for the best approach by using the available drugs with appropriate timing to provide sufficient CD34+ yield after an initial mobilization attempt, and in a cost-effective manner thereby avoiding further mobilization attempts and exposure to chemotherapy. Approaches not only for increasing stem cell yield, but also aiming to improve the quality of graft content and the associated transplantation outcomes are promising areas of research.

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