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Ann Thorac Surg. 2011 Sep;92(3):935-41. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.04.089.

A novel method for quantifying the in-vivo mechanical effect of material injected into a myocardial infarction.

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Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA.



Infarcted regions of myocardium exhibit functional impairment ranging in severity from hypokinesis to dyskinesis. We sought to quantify the effects of injecting a calcium hydroxyapatite-based tissue filler on the passive material response of infarcted left ventricles.


Three-dimensional finite element models of the left ventricle were developed using three-dimensional echocardiography data from sheep with a treated and untreated anteroapical infarct, to estimate the material properties (stiffness) in the infarct and remote regions. This was accomplished by matching experimentally determined left ventricular volumes, and minimizing radial strain in the treated infarct, which is indicative of akinesia. The nonlinear stress-strain relationship for the diastolic myocardium was anisotropic with respect to the local muscle fiber direction, and an elastance model for active fiber stress was incorporated.


It was found that the passive stiffness parameter, C, in the treated infarct region is increased by nearly 345 times the healthy remote value. Additionally, the average myofiber stress in the treated left ventricle was significantly reduced in both the remote and infarct regions.


Overall, injection of tissue filler into the infarct was found to render it akinetic and reduce stress in the left ventricle, which could limit the adverse remodeling that leads to heart failure.

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