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Ther Adv Urol. 2011 Apr;3(2):59-68. doi: 10.1177/1756287211400661.

Difficulties with access in percutaneous renal surgery.

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North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, The Arthur Smith Institute for Urology, 450 Lakeville Road, New Hyde Park, NY 11040, USA.


Percutaneous renal surgery provides a minimally invasive approach to the kidney for stone extraction in a number of different clinical scenarios. Certain clinical cases present inherent challenges to percutaneous access to the kidney. Herein, we present scenarios in which obtaining and/or maintaining percutaneous access is difficult along with techniques to overcome the challenges commonly encountered. Also, complications associated with these challenging percutaneous renal surgeries are discussed.


PCNL; angiomyolipoma; calyceal diverticulum; horseshoe kidney; nephrolithotomy; obesity

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