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Diabetologia. 2011 Nov;54(11):2771-8. doi: 10.1007/s00125-011-2281-7. Epub 2011 Aug 25.

Perinatal and infant mortality in term and preterm births among women with type 1 diabetes.

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  • 1Department of Paediatrics, Oslo University Hospital Ullevål, Oslo, Norway.



The aim of this study was to estimate the risks of adverse birth outcomes such as stillbirth, infant death, preterm birth and pre-eclampsia in women with type 1 diabetes, compared with the background population. We further aimed to explore the risks of adverse birth outcomes in preterm and term deliveries separately.


By linkage of two nationwide registries, the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry, we identified 1,307 births among women with pregestational type 1 diabetes registered in the Diabetes Registry, and 1,161,092 births in the background population during the period 1985-2004. The ORs with 95% CIs for adverse outcome among women with type 1 diabetes vs the background population were estimated using logistic regression.


The OR for stillbirth (≥22 weeks of gestation) was 3.6 (95% CI 2.5, 5.3), and for perinatal death (stillbirth or death in the first week of life) it was 2.9 (95% CI 2.0, 4.1). The OR for infant death (first year of life) was 1.9 (95% CI 1.1, 3.2). For preterm birth (< 37 weeks of gestation) and pre-eclampsia the ORs were 4.9 (95% CI 4.3, 5.5) and 6.3 (95% CI 5.5, 7.2), respectively. When preterm and term deliveries were analysed separately, the excess risk of stillbirth and infant death in women with diabetes was confined to term deliveries.


Pregestational type 1 diabetes was associated with a considerably higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including infant death, compared with the background population. A novel finding of the study was that the increased risk was confined to term births.

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