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J Virol Methods. 2011 Nov;177(2):206-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2011.08.004. Epub 2011 Aug 11.

A novel virus-encoded nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein: the UL3 protein of herpes simplex virus type 1.

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  • 1Molecular Virology and Viral Immunology Research Group, State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Science, 44 Xiaohongshan, Wuchang, Wuhan 430071, China.


Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) UL3 protein is a nuclear protein. In this study, the molecular mechanism of the subcellular localization of UL3 was characterized by fluorescence microscopy in living cells. A nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a nuclear export signal (NES) were also identified. UL3 was demonstrated to target to the cytoplasm through the NES via chromosomal region maintenance 1 (CRM-1) dependent pathway, and to the nucleus through RanGTP-dependent mechanism. Heterokaryon assays confirmed that UL3 was capable of shuttling between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. These results demonstrate that the UL3 protein is a novel HSV-1 encoded nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein.

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