Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2011 Jun;54(3):115-8. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1283170. Epub 2011 Aug 23.

Frameless image-guided neuroendoscopy training in real simulators.

Author information

  • 1Department of Neurosurgery , Neurologia Institute of Curitiba , Curitiba PR , Brazil. g



Over the last decade, neuroendoscopy has re-emerged as an interesting option in the management of intraventricular lesions in both children and adults. Nonetheless, as it has become more difficult to use cadaveric specimens in training, the development of alternative methods was vital. The aim of this study was to analyze the performance of a real simulator, in association with image-guided navigation, as a teaching tool for the training of intraventricular endoscopic procedures.


3 real simulators were built using a special type of resin. 1 was designed to represent the abnormally enlarged ventricles, making it possible for a third ventriculostomy to be performed. The remaining 2 were designed to simulate a person's skull and brain bearing intraventricular lesions, which were placed as follows: in the foramen of Monro region, in the frontal and occipital horns of the lateral ventricles and within the third ventricle. In all models, MRI images were obtained for navigation guidance. Within the ventricles, the relevant anatomic structures and the lesions were identified through the endoscope and compared with the position given by the navigation device. The next step consisted of manipulating the lesions, using standard endoscopic techniques.


We observed that the models were MRI compatible, easy and safe to handle. They nicely reproduced the intraventricular anatomy and brain consistence, as well as simulated intraventricular lesions. The image-based navigation was efficient in guiding the surgeon through the endoscopic procedure, allowing the selection of the best approach as well as defining the relevant surgical landmarks for each ventricular compartment. Nonetheless, as expected, navigation inaccuracies occurred. After the training sessions the surgeons felt they had gained valued experience by dealing with intraventricular lesions employing endoscopic techniques.


The use of real simulators in association with image-guided navigation proved to be an effective tool in training for neuroendoscopy.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, New York
    Loading ...
    Support Center