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Am J Nephrol. 2011;34(4):330-6. doi: 10.1159/000330673. Epub 2011 Aug 22.

Chronic kidney disease and risk of death from infection.

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Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 619 19th Street South, Birmingham, AL 35249, USA.



Infection, bacteremia and sepsis are major sources of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. This study sought to determine the association between predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) and infection-related mortality.


We analyzed participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). The study included adults ≥45- years-old without end-stage renal disease. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was categorized as ≥60, 45-59.9 and <45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) as <30, 30-299.9 and ≥300 mg/g. The study identified infection-related mortality, including septicemia, respiratory, abdominal and gastrointestinal, cardiac, kidney and genitourinary, neurologic, and other infections over a median of 13 years using the National Death Index.


Of 7,400 participants included in the study, 206 died from infections. Compared to individuals with eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), infection-related mortality was higher for those with lower eGFR [adjusted HR = 1.36 (95% CI: 0.81, 2.30) and 2.36 (1.04, 5.38) for eGFR of 45-59.9 and <45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), respectively; p trend = 0.06]. Compared to individuals with ACR <30 mg/g, infection-related mortality was higher for ACR levels of 30-299 and ≥300 mg/g [adjusted HR = 1.68 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.92) and 2.84 (0.92, 8.74), p trend = 0.02].


Reduced eGFR and albuminuria are associated with increased risk for infection-related mortality. Efforts are needed to reduce its incidence and mitigate the effects of infections among individuals with CKD.

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