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PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23277. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023277. Epub 2011 Aug 17.

Predator cat odors activate sexual arousal pathways in brains of Toxoplasma gondii infected rats.

Author information

1
Program in Neuroscience, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America. pathouse@stanford.edu

Abstract

Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not influence host response to non-feline predator odor nor does it alter behavior on olfactory, social, fear or anxiety tests, arguing for specific manipulation in the processing of cat odor. We report that Toxoplasma infection alters neural activity in limbic brain areas necessary for innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor. Moreover, Toxoplasma increases activity in nearby limbic regions of sexual attraction when the rat is exposed to cat urine, compelling evidence that Toxoplasma overwhelms the innate fear response by causing, in its stead, a type of sexual attraction to the normally aversive cat odor.

PMID:
21858053
PMCID:
PMC3157360
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0023277
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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