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Med Clin North Am. 2011 Sep;95(5):903-17. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2011.06.004.

Hypertension in obesity.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65212, USA. romaynel@health.missouri.edu

Abstract

Obesity and HTN are on the rise in the world. HTN seems to be the most common obesity-related health problem and visceral obesity seems to be the major culprit. Unfortunately, only 31% of hypertensives are treated to goal. This translates into an increased incidence of CVD and related morbidity and mortality. Several mechanisms have been postulated as the causes of obesity-related HTN. Activation of the RAAS, SNS, insulin resistance, leptin, adiponectin, dysfunctional fat, FFA, resistin, 11 Beta dehydrogenase, renal structural and hemodynamic changes, and OSA are some of the abnormalities in obesity-related HTN. Many of these factors are interrelated. Treatment of obesity should begin with weight loss via lifestyle modifications, medications, or bariatric surgery. According to the mechanisms of obesity-related HTN, it seems that drugs that blockade the RAAS and target the SNS should be ideal for treatment. There is not much evidence in the literature that one drug is better than another in controlling obesity-related HTN. There have only been a few studies specifically targeting the obese hypertensive patient, but recent trials that emphasize the importance of BP control have enrolled both overweight and obese subjects. Until we have further studies with more in-depth information about the mechanisms of obesity-related HTN and what the targeted treatment should be, the most important factor necessary to control the obesity-related HTN pandemic and its CVD and CKD consequences is to prevent and treat obesity and to treat HTN to goal.

PMID:
21855699
DOI:
10.1016/j.mcna.2011.06.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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