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J Infect. 2011 Nov;63(5):382-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2011.08.006. Epub 2011 Aug 12.

Soluble markers of inflammation are associated with Framingham scores in HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy.

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Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Campus Majadahonda), Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo, Km 2.2, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.



To evaluate the association between biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction and Framingham scores (FS) for risk of coronary heart disease (FS-CHD), stroke (FS-Stroke) or any cardiovascular event (FS-CVE) in HIV-infected on suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).


A cross-sectional study was conducted in 73 HIV-infected patients and 23 healthy controls. Inflammatory molecules and endothelial dysfunction markers were measured using a multiplex immunoassay (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), soluble TNF receptor type 1 (sTNF-R1), soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), soluble intercellular adhesion molecules (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1). Outcome variables were FS-CHD ≥10%, FS-Stroke ≥5% and FS-CVE ≥10%.


Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found comparing controls and HIV patients for PAI-1 (5.4 vs. 13.5 ng/dL), sTNF-R1 (0.85 vs. 1.09 ng/dL), sICAM-1 (529 vs. 858 ng/dL), sE-selectin (73.7 vs. 120 ng/dL), sP-selectin (676 vs. 1511 ng/dL) sCD40L (76 vs. 307 ng/dL), FS-CHD (4% vs. 7.8% L), FS-Stroke (2% vs. 2.8%) and FS-CVE (5% vs. 11%). In HIV-infected patients, the adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that sTNF-R1 levels were significantly associated with increased FS-CHD>10% (OR: 11.51 (95% CI: 1.14; 115.84); p = 0.038) and FS-CVE (OR: 12.41 (95% CI: 1.25; 123.23); p = 0.031).


HIV-infected patients show higher levels of soluble inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction markers than controls and have a two-fold increased FS of presenting coronary heart disease, stroke or cardiovascular events at 10 years. Furthermore, sTNF-R1 displayed the best association with FS of coronary heart disease and any cardiovascular event in our patients.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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