Send to

Choose Destination
J Immunol. 2011 Sep 15;187(6):3314-20. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1004087. Epub 2011 Aug 17.

The transport and inactivation kinetics of bacterial lipopolysaccharide influence its immunological potency in vivo.

Author information

Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.


The extraordinary potency and pathological relevance of gram-negative bacterial LPSs have made them very popular experimental agonists, yet little is known about what happens to these stimulatory molecules within animal tissues. We tracked fluorescent and radiolabeled LPS from a s.c. inoculation site to its draining lymph nodes (DLN), blood, and liver. Although we found FITC-labeled LPS in DLN within minutes of injection, drainage of radiolabeled LPS continued for >6 wk. Within the DLN, most of the LPS was found in the subcapsular sinus or medulla, near or within lymphatic endothelial cells and CD169(+) macrophages. Whereas most of the LPS seemed to pass through the DLN without entering B cell follicles, by 24 h after injection a small amount of LPS was found in the paracortex. In wild-type mice, ≥70% of the injected radiolabeled LPS underwent inactivation by deacylation before it left the footpad; in animals that lacked acyloxyacyl hydrolase, the LPS-deacylating enzyme, prolonged drainage of fully acylated (active) LPS boosted polyclonal IgM and IgG3 Ab titers. LPS egress from a s.c. injection site thus occurred during many weeks and was mainly via lymphatic channels. Its immunological potency, as measured by its ability to stimulate polyclonal Ab production, was greatly influenced by the kinetics of both lymphatic drainage and enzymatic inactivation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center