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Mol Cancer Res. 2011 Oct;9(10):1305-18. doi: 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-11-0033. Epub 2011 Aug 17.

Oxidative stress and prostate cancer progression are elicited by membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase.

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Division of Cancer Prevention, Department of Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.


Oxidative stress caused by high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been correlated with prostate cancer aggressiveness. Expression of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), which has been implicated in cancer invasion and metastasis, is associated with advanced prostate cancer. We show here that MT1-MMP plays a key role in eliciting oxidative stress in prostate cancer cells. Stable MT1-MMP expression in less invasive LNCaP prostate cancer cells with low endogenous MT1-MMP increased activity of ROS, whereas MT1-MMP knockdown in DU145 cells with high endogenous MT1-MMP decreased activity of ROS. Expression of MT1-MMP increased oxidative DNA damage in LNCaP and in DU145 cells, indicating that MT1-MMP-mediated induction of ROS caused oxidative stress. MT1-MMP expression promoted a more aggressive phenotype in LNCaP cells that was dependent on elaboration of ROS. Blocking ROS activity using the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine abrogated MT1-MMP-mediated increase in cell migration and invasion. MT1-MMP-expressing LNCaP cells displayed an enhanced ability to grow in soft agar that required increased ROS. Using cells expressing MT1-MMP mutant cDNAs, we showed that ROS activation entails cell surface MT1-MMP proteolytic activity. Induction of ROS in prostate cancer cells expressing MT1-MMP required adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and was impeded by anti-β1 integrin antibodies. These results highlight a novel mechanism of malignant progression in prostate cancer cells that involves β1 integrin-mediated adhesion, in concert with MT1-MMP proteolytic activity, to elicit oxidative stress and induction of a more invasive phenotype.

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