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J Vet Intern Med. 2011 Sep-Oct;25(5):1036-43. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.0774.x. Epub 2011 Aug 16.

Assessment of global and regional left ventricular volume and shape by real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. ingrid.ljungvall@slu.se

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Left ventricular (LV) remodeling occurs in response to chronic volume overload. Real-time 3-dimensional (RT3D) echocardiography offers new modalities for LV assessment.

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate LV changes in shape and volume in response to different severities of naturally acquired myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) in dogs by RT3D echocardiography.

ANIMALS:

Sixty-five client-owned dogs.

METHODS:

Prospectively recruited dogs were classified by standard echocardiography into healthy, mild, moderate, and severe MMVD groups. Endocardial border tracking of LV RT3D dataset was performed, from which global and regional (automatically acquired basal, mid, and apical segments based on LV long-axis length) end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic volumes (ESV), LV long-axis length, and sphericity index were obtained.

RESULTS:

Global and regional EDV and ESV (indexed to body weight) were most prominently increased in dogs with severe MMVD. All 3 regional LV segments contributed to increased global EDV and ESV with increasing MMVD severity, but mid-EDV contributed the most to the global EDV increase. Furthermore, LV long-axis length and LV sphericity index increased with increasing MMVD severity. Basal and apical EDV segments displayed the strongest association with sphericity index (P < .0001).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE:

The most prominent LV volume expansion was found in dogs with severe MMVD. Increased EDV, primarily in the mid-segment, leads to rounding of LV apical and basal segments in response to increasing MMVD severity. Assessment of LV volume and shape potentially could allow early detection of dogs at risk for rapid progression into congestive heart failure.

PMID:
21848946
DOI:
10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.0774.x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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