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Int Nurs Rev. 2011 Sep;58(3):392-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-7657.2011.00884.x. Epub 2011 May 23.

Strategies to develop the nursing process and nursing care plans in the health system in Bolivia.

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Nursing and Physiotherapy Department, University of Almería, Almería, Spain.



Care plans provide guidelines to offer all patients the same quality assistance. Care plans constitute a base where every stage of the nursing process can be recorded, which will save time when handling documentation. Bolivian nurses are very keen to participate in this global trend in order to grasp the opportunity offered by the international cooperation programmes carried out between Spain and South America.


To identify obstacles and enablers encountered when implementing the nursing process and to set clear strategies and actions so as to develop the nursing process and care plans in Santa Cruz department (Bolivia) both in hospitals and universities.


The participatory action research was conducted between the Autonomous University of Gabriel René Moreno (Bolivia) and the University of Almería (Spain). The procedure for data collection included meetings with key informants, interviews, observation and workshops. Data were analysed using the constant comparison and categorized by common themes.


Lack of time and instruments, shortage of resources and the need for continuous training came up as obstacles, whereas enablers were the nurses' involvement, the university-hospital coordination and the support given by institutions. Actions taken were the creation of a care plan unit, the implementation of a training programme, design of instruments and meetings held with authorities and institutional representatives.


Conducting action research schemes within international cooperation programmes signifies an excellent opportunity for the nursing system in less-developed countries to be included in international plans with the aim of standardizing the nursing practice.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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