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Diabetologia. 2011 Dec;54(12):2971-7. doi: 10.1007/s00125-011-2279-1. Epub 2011 Aug 16.

The role of chronic kidney disease as a predictor of outcome after revascularisation of the ulcerated diabetic foot.

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Department of Vascular Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, PO Box 340, 00029 HUS Helsinki, Finland.



The aim of the study was to stratify the risk of diabetic patients with leg ulcer or gangrene undergoing infrainguinal revascularisation for critical limb ischaemia.


The study cohort included 732 revascularisation procedures performed in 597 diabetic patients with ulcer or gangrene. Logistic regression and CART analysis were used for identification of predictors of 1-year outcome.


Logistic regression showed that chronic kidney disease (CKD) class (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.16, 1.65) was an independent predictor of 1-year leg salvage (area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve 0.60, 95% CI 0.54, 0.65). The terminal nodes of the CART for 1-year leg salvage were CKD classes 4-5, the level (infrapopliteal vs femoropopliteal revascularisation), type of revascularisation (bypass surgery vs percutaneous transluminal angioplasty) and gangrene (area under the ROC curve 0.62, 95% CI 0.57, 0.68). Logistic regression showed that pulmonary disease (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.11, 2.78), CKD class (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.24, 1.65), foot gangrene (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.21, 2.60) and patient age (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01, 1.04) were independent predictors of 1-year amputation-free survival (area under the ROC curve 0.65, 95% CI 0.60, 0.69). The terminal nodes of the CART for 1-year amputation-free survival were CKD classes 3-5, patient's age of ≥ 75 years and foot gangrene (area under the ROC curve 0.64, 95% CI 0.60, 0.68).


CKD is a formidable risk factor for poor intermediate outcome after infrainguinal revascularisation in diabetic patients with foot ulcer or gangrene. CART analysis indicates that foot gangrene is also a significant risk factor for adverse outcome.

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