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Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2012 May;16(3):229-36. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2010.09.006. Epub 2011 Aug 16.

Botulinum toxin type A treatment in children with cerebral palsy: evaluation of treatment success or failure by means of goal attainment scaling.

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Clinical Motion Analysis Laboratory, UZ Pellenberg, Belgium.



There is considerable variability in the amount of response to BTX-A treatment between and within patients with cerebral palsy (CP).


The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the clinical responsiveness of Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) treatment in children with CP and specifically delineate features of treatment success and failure.


Four hundred and thirty-eight children (251 boys, 187 girls; mean age 8 years 2 months, SD 4 years) were included into the study. Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) was used to classify and evaluate treatment efficacy. Two study groups were defined: one group with an excellent response (GAS≥60.0) and one group with a lack of response (GAS≤40.0) to BTX-A.


Seventy-five patients (17.1%) had an excellent response and treatment was found to be unsuccessful for 31 patients (7.1%). Children with a lack of response to BTX-A were significantly older compared to children with a high responsiveness (p=0.0013). In the latter group, more children received multi-level injections and fewer children had injections in proximal parts of the lower limb compared to the low responsiveness group (p=0.0024). Moreover, there was a significant difference in the use of different types of casts between both study groups (p=0.0263).


Age, level of treatment and casting seem to be crucial features of BTX-A treatment success or failure in children with CP.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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