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J Psychosom Res. 2011 Sep;71(3):148-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2011.02.006. Epub 2011 Mar 30.

A confirmatory factor analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in end-stage renal disease patients.

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School of Psychology, University of Hertfordshire, UK.



We sought to examine several competing factor structures of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI) in a sample of patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), in which setting the factor structure is poorly defined, though depression symptoms are common. In addition, demographic and clinical correlates of the identified factors were examined.


The BDI was administered to clinical sample of 460 ESRD patients attending 4 UK renal centres. Competing models of the factor structure of the BDI were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis.


The best fitting model consisted of general depression factor that accounted for 81% of the common variance between all items along with orthogonal cognitive and somatic factors (G-S-C model, CFI=.983, TLI=.979, RMSEA=.037), which explained 8% and 9% of the common variance, respectively. Age, diabetes, and ethnicity were significantly related to the cognitive factor, whereas albumin, dialysis adequacy, and ethnicity were related to the somatic factor. No demographic or clinical variable was associated with the general factor.


The general-factor model provides the best fitting and conceptually most acceptable interpretation of the BDI. Furthermore, the cognitive and somatic factors appear to be related to specific demographic and clinical factors.

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