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Cell Signal. 2011 Dec;23(12):2039-50. doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2011.07.020. Epub 2011 Aug 4.

Stable over-expression of PPARβ/δ and PPARγ to examine receptor signaling in human HaCaT keratinocytes.

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Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, The Center of Molecular Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) function and receptor cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including PPARγ and retinoic acid receptors (RARs), was examined using stable human HaCaT keratinocyte cell lines over-expressing PPARβ/δ or PPARγ. Enhanced ligand-induced expression of two known PPAR target genes, adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP) and angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4), was found in HaCaT keratinocytes over-expressing PPARβ/δ or PPARγ. Over-expression of PPARβ/δ did not modulate the effect of a PPARγ agonist on up-regulation of ADRP or ANGPTL4 mRNA in HaCaT keratinocytes. All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) increased expression of a known RAR target gene, yet despite a high ratio of fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5) to cellular retinoic acid binding protein II, did not increase expression of ANGPTL4 or 3-phosphoinositide-dependent-protein kinase 1 (PDPK1), even in HaCaT keratinocytes expressing markedly higher levels of PPARβ/δ. While PPARβ/δ-dependent attenuation of staurosporine- or UVB-induced poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage was not observed, PPARβ/δ- and PPARγ-dependent repression of UVB-induced expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines was found in HaCaT keratinocytes over-expressing PPARβ/δ or PPARγ. These studies suggest that FABP5 does not transport atRA or GW0742 to PPARβ/δ and promote anti-apoptotic activity by increasing expression of PDPK1, or that PPARβ/δ interferes with PPARγ transcriptional activity. However, these studies demonstrate that stable over-expression of PPARβ/δ or PPARγ significantly increases the efficacy of ligand activation and represses UVB-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL6), or IL8 in HaCaT keratinocytes, thereby establishing an excellent model to study the functional role of these receptors in human keratinocytes.

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