Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
AAPS PharmSciTech. 2011 Dec;12(4):1050-5. doi: 10.1208/s12249-011-9669-z. Epub 2011 Aug 13.

Inline real-time near-infrared granule moisture measurements of a continuous granulation-drying-milling process.

Author information

College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Campbell University, Buies Creek, North Carolina, USA.


The purpose of this research was to use inline real-time near-infrared (NIR) to measure the moisture content of granules manufactured using a commercial production scale continuous twin-screw granulator fluid-bed dryer milling process. A central composite response surface statistical design was used to study the effect of inlet air temperature and dew point on granule moisture content. The NIR moisture content was compared to Karl Fischer (KF) and loss on drying (LOD) moisture determinations. Using multivariate analysis, the data showed a statistically significant correlation between the conventional methods and NIR. The R(2) values for predicted moisture content by NIR versus KF and predicted moisture values by NIR versus LOD were 0.94 (p < 0.00001) and 0.85 (p < 0.0002), respectively. The adjusted R(2) for KF versus LOD correlation was 0.85 (p < 0.0001). Analysis of the response surface design data showed that inlet air temperature over a range of 35-55°C had a significant linear impact on granule moisture content as measured by predicted NIR (adjusted R(2) = 0.84, p < 0.02), KF (adjusted R(2) = 0.91, p < 0.0001), and LOD (adjusted R(2) = 0.85, p < 0.0006). The inlet air dew point range of 10-20°C did not have a significant impact on any of the moisture measurements.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center