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J Plant Physiol. 2011 Nov 15;168(17):2124-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2011.07.001. Epub 2011 Aug 15.

MdVHP1 encodes an apple vacuolar H(+)-PPase and enhances stress tolerance in transgenic apple callus and tomato.

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State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, National Research Center for Apple Engineering and Technology, College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai-An, Shandong 271018, China.


Vacuolar H(+)-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase (VHP, EC is an electrogenic proton pump, which is related to growth as well as abiotic stress tolerance in plants. In this study, a VHP gene MdVHP1 was isolated from apple. The alignment of nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed that it encoded a type I VHP protein. It expressed in vegetative and reproductive organs, and its expression was induced by salt, PEG-mediated osmotic stress, cold and heat in apple in vitro shoot cultures. MdVHP1 expression showed a similar pattern in different apple tissues, but different change dynamics in response to abiotic stresses, compared with MdVHP2 (another MdVHP gene in apple). MdVHP1 overexpression enhanced tolerance to salt, PEG-mimic drought, cold and heat in transgenic apple calluses, which was related to an increased accumulation of proline and decreased MDA content compared with control calluses. In addition, MdVHP1 overexpression confers improved tolerance to salt and drought in transgenic tomato, along with an increased ion accumulation, high RWC and low solute potential compared with wild type. These results indicate that MdVHP1 is an important regulator for plant tolerance to abiotic stresses by modulating internal stores of ions and solutes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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