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J Proteomics. 2011 Nov 18;74(12):2786-97. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2011.07.018. Epub 2011 Aug 4.

Phosphoproteomics: searching for a needle in a haystack.

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Department of Radiobiology, Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defence, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.


Most of the cellular processes are regulated by reversible phosphorylation of proteins, which in turn plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression, cell division, signal transduction, metabolism, differentiation, and apoptosis. Mass spectrometry of phosphopeptides obtained from tryptic protein digests has become a powerful tool for characterization of phosphoproteins involved in these processes. However, there is a general need to significantly enrich the phosphopeptide content to compensate their low abundance, insufficient ionization, and suppression effects of non-phosphorylated peptides. This paper aims to give a comprehensive overview on the methods involved in recent phosphoproteomics. It presents a description of contemporary enrichment techniques with references to particular studies and compares different approaches to characterization of phosphoproteome by mass spectrometry.

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