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J Cardiol. 2011 Sep;58(2):84-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2011.07.004. Epub 2011 Aug 11.

Stent thrombosis of drug eluting stent: pathological perspective.

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Division of Cardiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa, Japan.


Although, the first-generation drug eluting stents (DES) have significantly reduced rates of restenosis compared to bare metal stents (BMS), an increased risk of late stent thrombosis (LST) has emerged as a major concern. Pathologic studies of patients dying from late DES thrombosis demonstrates delayed arterial healing characterized by persistent fibrin deposition and poor endothelialization as the primary substrate. However, recent thorough investigations revealed additional mechanisms of stent thrombosis such as hypersensitivity reaction, excessive fibrin deposit with malapposition, or neoatherosclerosis, which are associated with device-specific components and the majority of very late stent thrombosis is likely associated with these abnormal vascular responses. Therefore, although the incidence of stent thrombosis following DES implantation is similar in each period, the underlying mechanisms of this complication may vary. In the current review, the mechanisms of stent thrombosis in the DES era will be discussed using the data from autopsy studies that have been published.

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