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Retina. 2011 Apr;31(4):662-8. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0b013e31821067c4.

Endophthalmitis after intravitreal vascular [corrected] endothelial growth factor antagonists: a six-year experience at a university referral center.

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Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33418, USA.

Erratum in

  • Retina. 2012 Jul;32(7):1441.



To assess the rate of infectious endophthalmitis and to describe the clinical and microbiological features of eyes that develop clinically suspected endophthalmitis after an intravitreal injection of vascular endothelial growth factor antagonists.


The medical records of patients undergoing intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2010, at a single university referral center and associated satellite clinics were retrospectively analyzed to determine the rate of infectious endophthalmitis after intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections.


Twelve cases (11 patients) of clinically suspected endophthalmitis were identified after a total of 60,322 injections (0.02%; 95% confidence interval, 0.0114%-0.0348%). Of the 12 cases, 11 presented within 3 days of the injection. Of the 7 culture-positive cases, 5 were because of Streptococcus species. In 4 of the 5 Streptococcus cases, final visual acuity was hand motions or worse. The rate of clinically suspected endophthalmitis was 0.018% after bevacizumab and 0.027% after ranibizumab injections.


A very low rate of endophthalmitis after intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents was observed. Patients typically presented within 3 days of injection. Streptococcus species was the most common bacteria isolated, and it was generally associated with poor visual outcomes.

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